You Want to Fly Who?! Avoiding Surprises in Production Costs

It’s probably happened to every theater producer.  You think your expenses are under control.  Ticket sales may be booming or they may need a kick in the seat, but production costs at least are manageable.  Then—like bad Shakespeare—expenses come out of nowhere.  Petty cash is nearly disappearing out of the box.  Receipts for reimbursement are piling high.  Your designers want to order ostrich feathers, moving lights, fog machines, and goldleaf paint—or they have already.  And your director is adding costumes, sets, cast members, and talking about flying characters that you never imagined leaving the ground.

How does a producer get back in control of expenses?  It’s possible, but it takes moving back a few steps to do it best.  Here are some ideas for managing production costs.

  • Read smart.  A producer should be able to read a script and estimate production costs.  It’s easy to count the characters and set locations, but there are dozens of other clues in a script too.  Is the show set in a specific period or location?  Anything other than modern costumes and common locations may cost more than expected.  Are there costumes changes?  Is any special make-up necessary?  Are there any unusual set pieces or props that may need to be bought or built?  How about special effects?  Even without plotting a light design, it may be possible to guess if any specials may be needed.  How about things like fog, haze, pyrotechnics or flying?  Each of these effects can drive up a production budget.  Knowing what costs to expect when first reading a script is the first step in avoiding surprises.
  • Get the director involved early.  A producer should have a good idea of what sets, props, lights, costumes and special effects may be involved in a production, but it’s the director who actually decides how the show will look on stage.  To ensure that a producer and director are on the same page (and have the same production in mind), get a director involved in planning and budgeting early.  Budgets of course may be limited or already decided and approved, but carefully reviewing a production budget with a director lets both parties know what to expect.  If the production budget is already set, give the director a copy and ask about any possible shortfalls.  Nine times out of ten, the director will say that it’s not enough.  In that case, talk about plans for casting, sets, lights, props, costumes, and effects and how the budget can best be used.  If possible, borrow from one production area to fund another—taking money from lighting for example to add to costumes.  Having the director aware of the budget, and being aware of the director’s vision, could save some conflicts later on.
  • Attend production meetings.  Meetings with a director and budget discussions shouldn’t stop after a first budget review.  Once designers and other artistic and technical staff are involved, part of regular production meetings should involve reviewing the budget.  If any new production elements are asked for or added, discuss whether the remaining budget will cover the cost.  If one element of production appears to be going over budget, discuss whether there may be savings available in another area.  Staying in contact with the director and designers is the best way to estimate how production costs may end up—and there’s no better time or place to do that than at production meetings.
  • Set—and follow—strict guidelines for petty cash, purchase orders, and receipt reimbursement.  Chances are that even with budgets set, reviewed and approved, someone will need, order or buy something unexpected that threatens to throw off the budget.  This is what rules are for.  The first production meeting should include a discussion of how petty cash is distributed, how purchases are to be made, and how receipts may be reimbursed.  If there are limits to how much petty cash is given at once or to whom, say it up front.  If purchase orders are required, emphasize that and explain the system—and (this is important) communicate to regular vendors when purchase orders are required so that nobody can go around the rules.  If reimbursements are made only up to a certain amount, say that up front too.  A producer shouldn’t be responsible for a team member who spends more that what was authorized and expects reimbursement.  Set rules and explain them—whether it’s that the guilty party must return the item, be responsible for the cost, or be reimbursed only if budgeted funds are available at the end of the production.
  • Go to rehearsals.  Like attending production meetings, going to rehearsals is one of the best ways to track and estimate costs.  If the director is talking about scene changes, costumes changes, or effects that a producer didn’t know about, bells and whistles should go off.  I don’t recommend confronting a director about this during a rehearsal or in front of the cast, but there should certainly be some discussion later.  Very likely though, if a producer has been meeting with the director and attending production meetings, there won’t be any surprises.  Going to rehearsals has other benefits too—it communicates to the director that you’re involved, supportive and available.  It sends the same message to the stage manager, designers who may be at rehearsals, and production staff, cast and crew.
  • Hold post-mortem meetings.  Whether everything has gone perfectly right and come under budget, or gone horribly wrong at many times the expected cost, a post-mortem production meeting is a good idea.  If there have been problems, everyone involved should discuss what went wrong and how to avoid it happening again.  The meeting shouldn’t be about finding or placing blame—it should be about finding solutions.  If communication was a problem, be honest about that and ask for input on ways communication can improve.  On the other hand, if something went especially right—particularly if some new problem was worked out or a new way to do something was involved—that should be discussed too.  In that case, you want to be sure that you can repeat what happened.  A post-mortem meeting is also a great time to thank everyone involved and to stay in contact about possible future projects together.

These are just a few suggestions for controlling production costs.  Obviously there are other ways—ways such as researching prices, buying things like lumber or paint in bulk when possible, borrowing items, or seeking out donations.  To keep the production team budget conscious though—and feel supported—frequent communication is the overriding suggestion.

Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Theater…

No, I don’t know everything there is to know about theater. But I do know where to find answers. You do too—because you’re already there.

When I first worked in professional theater about twenty years ago, every production management office had some form of a resource guide. These guides listed leads for finding everything from acrylic paints to zip lights. They were especially great resources for finding unusual props, set pieces, or costume materials. I spent a few years away from theater, and when I came back production resource books weren’t so common. In their place was—and is—the Internet.

The Internet may be more useful to theater and entertainment than just about any other industry. Theater productions are always incorporating new ideas and materials. Manufacturers usually take in one piece and produce another, but in theater there’s always a challenge to find something out of the ordinary or a new way to do something. Each production might call for some new or unusual effect, lighting equipment, set material, rigging, prop or costume.

Resources on the Internet are just as useful for theater managers, marketers and fundraisers. Here are just a few of the ways a theater can benefit from the Internet:

• Shopping and purchases. Theaters used to rely on catalogs and special orders for anything they couldn’t track down locally. Now, just about any item can be searched for and ordered online. This not only takes less time, but prices can be compared to save money too.

• Production resources, effects, equipment, and sound files. Production managers, tech directors, and designers can do more than just order on the Internet. New materials and equipment and ways to use them can be researched. Sound designers and engineers can even find sound effects available for download.

• Play directories. Not only are plays available to purchase and license at sites such as MTI and Samuel French, but theaters can also find many sites to search for plays in specific genres or with specific size casts.

• Press contacts. Marketing directors can use the Internet to find contacts at local newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations. Theaters might even search for press and media in an area and find some that they hadn’t remembered or known about before.

• Foundations and corporations. Development directors can research foundations, corporations and government agencies that might donate or sponsor programs at their theaters. Not only are giving histories and guidelines easy to find, but many funders now allow or even require that requests be made online.

• Service organizations and arts councils. Almost all theater organizations have websites now, including national organizations such as Theater Communications Group and the American Association of Community Theatres. Theaters can find local organizations and advocates to benefit from their programs and resources.

• Theater directories and rental spaces. Among the resources that some service organizations provide are access to their membership lists or directories of spaces that available for rent. Some rental spaces might even have virtual tours available online.

• Sample contracts. Not only might directories of rental spaces be available, but theaters can also find sample contracts for renting a space, hiring a consultant, licensing a play, booking a performer, or almost anything else an agreement might be needed for.

• Interns or internship programs. Searches can provide lists of local colleges, universities and even high schools to find contacts for sending internship notices. On the other hand, students can use the Internet to find local theaters and arts organizations for possible internships.

• Forums. If you can’t find answers anywhere else, post a question on a forum especially for theater producers and managers. You’re likely to find someone who has dealt with an issue before or, at the very least, you’ll find a good social networking site. Some good theater forums I’ve found are the AACT Forum, the Community Theatre Green Room, and the discussion boards at

There are probably countless ways a theater can use the Internet—posting audition notices, researching union guidelines, and advertising job openings are just a few others. One more is reading theater blogs, which can be either official blogs of theater companies, reviews by professional or amateur playgoers, journals of theater artists, or articles and discussions by people who care about the future of theater. Check out the few that I’ve included in a new blogroll—each of them is a great resource too.